We have been having exceptionally hot weather in Europe and unlike other years where this may last just for a day or two, this seems to be going on and on.
Babies/Toddlers (as well as elderly) are at higher risk of becoming dehydrated, because of their smaller bodies they have less body fluid reserve and their surface area to volume ratio is higher. Its important therefore to recognise the symptoms of dehydration early, which include:
- seem drowsy
- breathe fast
- have few or no tears when they cry
- have a soft spot on their head that sinks inwards (sunken fontanelle)
- have a dry mouth
- have dark-yellow pee (less wet nappies)
- have cold and blotchy-looking hands and feet
Firstly it is important to keep them out of the sun and clothe appropriately with light, breathable clothing. Ensure also that your baby is not wrapped up too hot when sleeping.
For breastfed babies < 6 months of age, the ideal is to increase the breastfeeding frequency, which often occurs naturally, as babies signal when they need more fluid. For formula fed babies, they will need more formula as well during hot weather and again, most babies will signal this automatically.
For babies over 6 months of age, cooled boiled water should be offered frequently in hot weather. I often get asked how much they should have, which very much depends on the weight and age of the baby. Most babies > 6 months of age weigh > 5 kg, so that means you are looking at 100 ml/kg of total liquid (that is milk and water) to maintain hydration, during very hot weather this can increase to a total 120-130 ml/kg of water. This is just a rough guide as some children want more than that and some are fine just with 100 ml/kg. It is therefore important to monitor their hydration status.
For toddlers, milk of course is not such a prominent liquid in their diet as for babies. It is therefore really important to ensure that they consume sufficient additional liquid, ideally in the form of water. Fluid requirements are calculated as follows:
- first 10 kg = 100 ml/kg and for the following 1 kg its 50 ml/kg. So a toddler of 13 kg would require 1150 ml liquid per day.
- Remember though that food also contains water and contributes to the total fluid intake
I do have children that refuse to drink water and although I am not a fan of fruit juice, in this hot weather its more important to keep them hydrated, so I usually suggest (in cases that refuse to drink plain water) to flavour water with a little bit of fruit juice (1:5 dilution) and/or you can also try fruit ice lollies (blending fruit with water). In addition, offer plenty of juicy fruit (i.e. water melon) and vegetables that contain water (i.e cucumber).
If ant any stage you are worried about your baby or toddlers’ hydration status, please seek professional medical help.